Monday, June 25, 2007

MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM , THE GOLDEN AGE OF INDONESIA IN THE PAST










By Ari Satriyo Wibowo

From 21th of June to 20th of July 2007 , National Museum of Jakarta held an exhibition about Majapahit Kingdong in its Statue Building.

The Majapahit kingdom was Javanese maritime empire that dominated the lesser kingdoms of Indonesia and Malaya from about 1300 to the early 16th century. It was founded by Raden Wijaya (reigned 1293-1309), son-in-law of King Kertanagara (ruled 1268-1292) of Singosari. When ruled Majapahit Raden Wijaya change his name as Kerta rajasa Jayawardana. The kingdom was ruled by 12 kings.

Guided by Gajah Mada (1290?-1364), chief minister from 1331 to 1364, the kingdom adopted an aggressive policy that in little more than two decades is said to have gained it control over practically all modern Indonesia and much of Malaya.

The social politic dynamics of this Kingdom showed the changes in its leaders, even though this kingdom left a vacuum afterwards because of the conflict in its internal succession.

The kingdom's power, based on its command of the sea routes and hence the commerce in the region, declined after Gajah Mada's death, and by 1520 it had virtually disintegrated

Gajah Mada (1290?-1364), Indonesian soldier and statesman who expanded the kingdom of Majapahit from the island ulanof Java across much of Indonesia. His rule is commonly seen as a golden age of Indonesian history. Gajah Mada first became prominent as a royal bodyguard who helped suppress a rebellion against King Jayanagara in 1319. Jayanagara named Gajah Mada patih (minister) for his loyalty, but Gajah Mada later turned on Jayanagara when the king took Gajah Mada's wife for his own. When the ailing king later underwent surgery, Gajah Mada ordered the surgeon to kill Jayanagara, and, once the surgeon had, Gajah Mada had him executed.

During the reigns of Queen Tribhuvanottungadevi (ruled 1328-1350) and King Hayam Wuruk (ruled 1350-1389) Gajah Mada served as mapatih (chief minister) and ambitiously extended the power of Majapahit over Java, Bali, Lombok, Borneo, Sulawesi (Celebes), and the Moluccas. He overcame Palembang, the successor state of the Sri Vijaya empire in Sumatra. He also codified laws and customs and created an administrative system that stayed essentially the same until the 19th century. Gajah Mada used Majapahit's navy to enforce his power over outlying islands and to guarantee Majapahit a virtual monopoly over the islands' spice trade. As a unifier of the archipelago, Gajah Mada is an important symbol for modern Indonesia. Universitas Gajah Mada (founded in 1949) in Yogyakarta, one of the country's main universities, is named for him.

The Majapahit kingdom is seen to have left invalueable lessons to posterity, such as promoting harmony among people’s relegious differences.

In addition, the Majapahit era is one which showed the dynamic combination of social life between agriculture and maritime life. The revitalization of its culture sites show that many cultural activities can be seen in the Trowulan site and its surroundings.

Trowulan is located 80 kilometers southwest Surabaya, and important harbour and major business centre located in Eastern Java and also second largest city in Indonesia.

Other remainders of Majapahit are Wringin Lawang temple, the main gate of the Majapahit Kingdom, and temples of Brahu, Bajangratu and Tikus. The old Pendopo Agung (Grand Pavillion) is found about two kilometers from the museum. An imitation of Mount Mahameru surrounded by eight structures is found here. It presumed to have been used for religious ceremonies. ***

1 comment:

Edgar's Blog said...

Wah bagus Mas. Jadipengin lihat pemerannya.